Successfully trading currency pairs is not just about examining charts and seeing where to place your next trade. That is certainly part of the process, but if that is all there was to it, then everyone would get rich trading Forex. Instead, you also need to know about the fundamental factors that play a role in the pricing of Forex pairs as well.

Today, we will look at a few of the fundamental factors that influence the price of all Forex pairs.

Economic Growth and Outlook

The way that an economy is growing, and the outlook for the future growth of that economy are both very important. Consumers, businesses, and governments are all players in this, and it is important to get a sense of what all of those players believe is happening in their economy.

When things are upbeat, consumers will feel safe and happy, and this will encourage them to spend more money. Companies take the money that they receive from customers. They will then turn around and spend the money as well. This is good news because it generates tax revenues for governments. Those extra tax revenues tend to get spent as well, and everything will be running like a well-oiled machine.

On the flip side, weak economies result when consumers are not spending as much. When consumer spending slows, so do corporate profits. This also means that layoffs and declining production are likely to result. Tax revenues dip as companies tighten their belt and stop spending like they used to.

Regardless of what kind of economy a specific country is in at the moment, the health of that economy can have a direct impact on the currency of that country.

The most commonly referenced measurement of economy growth (or decline) in a country is its Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

The GDP measurement takes into account the monetary value of all products and services sold within a country during a certain period of time. The most common measurement used is one year’s worth of sales to determine GDP. GDP is a quick and easy way to estimate the relative size and the relative economic growth of any particular country over a period of time. You can see how this all plays out here on this chart:

 

Capital Flow

Money can move around the world much faster today than it used to in the past. It is easy to click your mouse a few times and send money wherever you need it to go.

Traders today can literally invest in markets that are not their domestic market if they choose to do so. In fact, plenty of Forex traders find themselves trading in places like the London Exchange or the New York Exchange when they are investing in currencies that are specifically traded in those markets.

Capital flow represents the way that money flows through the various world markets from traders all over the planet.

It is important to identify a positive or negative capital flow balance in any specific country. A positive capital flow into a country is significant because it means that the amount of foreign investment into that country outweighs the amount of investment moving out of the country. A negative capital flow means that more money is moving out of the country than into it.

When more money is moving into a country, it increases the level of demand for that country’s currency because there are plenty of foreign investors who need to get their hands on the currency of that country in order to invest there. Thus, positive capital flow is generally seen as a very positive thing for the strength of the currency in a specific country.

The flip side is when negative cash flow takes over a country. In that instance, the demand for that country’s currency will be weak, but the supply will be strong. In that scenario, it is easy to see why the value of the currency will fall.

Trade Flow and Trade Balance

World trade is on the rise in significant ways. It has increased from approximately $10 trillion in 2005 to $28.5 trillion in 2021. Countries sell their goods to one another all the time, and it is important to understand the trade flows between countries in order to get a better idea of how they are balanced out over time.

The United States alone does a tremendous amount of trade with other countries. As an example, check out this latest chart of trade flow between the United States and other major economies:

 

The trade ratio is used to measure the balance between exports and imports in a specific country. In other words… Is the country a net importer of goods? Or is it exporting more than it is taking in? These are the questions that can help you determine the value of the currency within that country a little more accurately.

If exports are higher than imports, then a trade surplus exists within the country. If imports are higher than exports, then a trade deficit exists.

Trade deficits can potentially push the currency of a specific country down. The looming prospect of having to eventually pay for all of those imported goods is something that traders must keep an eye on when deciding which currencies they may want to trade.

Trade surpluses tend to facilitate more demand for the currency of a specific country, and that can push the price of the currency of that country higher than it normally would be. It is important to remember this and to work out the details of how this will all play out in the currency markets. Again, no one can know with 100% certainty at all times how the currency market will play out, but it is important to understand the standing of a country in terms of its trade surplus or deficit.